Global production

Trends Production of tobacco leaf increased by 40% between 1971, during which 4.2 million tons of leaf were produced, and 1997, during which 5.9 million tons of leaf were produced.[39] According to the Food and Agriculture organization of the UN, tobacco leaf production was expected to hit 7.1 million tons by 2010. This number is a bit lower than the record high production of 1992, during which 7.5 million tons of leaf were produced.[40] The production growth was almost entirely due to increased productivity by developing nations, where production increased by 128%.[41] During that same time period, production in developing countries actually decreased.[40] Chinaís increase in tobacco production was the single biggest factor in the increase in world production. Chinaís share of the world market increased from 17% in 1971 to 47% in 1997.[39] This growth can be partially explained by the existence of a high import tariff on foreign tobacco entering China. While this tariff has been reduced from 64% in 1999 to 10% in 2004,[42] it still has led to local, Chinese cigarettes being preferred over foreign cigarettes because of their lower cost. Every year 6.7 million tons of tobacco are produced throughout the world. The top producers of tobacco are China (39.6%), India (8.3%), Brazil (7.0%) and the United States (4.6%).[43] [edit]Major producers [edit]China Around the peak of global tobacco production there were 20 million rural Chinese households producing tobacco on 2.1 million hectares of land.[44] While it is the major crop for millions of Chinese farmers, growing tobacco is not as profitable as cotton or sugar cane. This is because the Chinese government sets the market price. While this price is guaranteed, it is lower than the natural market price, because of the lack of market risk. To further control tobacco in their borders, China founded a State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (STMA) in 1982. STMA control tobacco production, marketing, imports and exports and contributes 12% to the nation's national income.[45] As noted above, despite the income generated for he state by profits from state-owned tobacco companies and the taxes paid by companies and retailers, China's government has acted to reduce tobacco use.[46] [edit]Pakistan Each year 5% of the total land of Pakistan is cultivated for tobacco. It is widely grown in Southern Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. [edit]Brazil In Brazil around 135,000 family farmers cite tobacco production as their main economic activity.[44] Tobacco has never exceeded 0.7% of the countryís total cultivated area.[47] In the southern regions of Brazil, Virginia and Amarelinho flue-cured tobacco as well as Burley and Galpao Comun air-cured tobacco are produced. These types of tobacco are used for cigarettes. In the northeast, darker, air- and sun-cured tobacco is grown. These types of tobacco are used for cigars, twists and dark-cigarettes.[47] Brazilís government has made attempts to reduce the production of tobacco, but has not had a successful systematic anti-tobacco farming initiative. Brazilís government, however, provides small loans for family farms, including those that grow tobacco, through the Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar (PRONAF).[48] [edit]India India's Tobacco Board is headquartered in Guntur in the state of Andhra Pradesh.[49] India has 96,865 registered tobacco farmers[50] and many more who are not registered. Around 0.25% of Indiaís cultivated land is used for tobacco production.[51] Since 1947, the Indian Government has supported growth in the tobacco industry. India has seven tobacco research centers that are located in Madras (now known as Chennai, Tamil Nadu), Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Mysore, West Bengal, and Rajamundry.[50] Rajahmundry houses the core research institute. The government has set up a Central Tobacco Promotion Council, which works to increase exports of Indian tobacco. The Indian Government and several states have taken multiple measures to reduce Cigarette smoking. Smoking in public places is banned in many states, it is not allowed to be portrayed in movies, warnings are posted on cigarette packs.